Health News | Research sheds light on durability and effectiveness of immune response against COVID-19

Washington [US]May 28 (ANI): A group of researchers has accelerated the collection of essential data to answer questions about the immune response necessary for long-term protection against SARSCoV2, in several studies of eight cohorts across the United States.

A description of the cohort, assays used, and event definitions was recently published in the American Society for Microbiology’s open access journal, mSphere.

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Longitudinal observational studies (studies that use continuous or repeated measures to follow particular individuals over time) are essential to answer important questions about the durability and effectiveness of immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 . Often, individual cohorts have limited longitudinal data or participant numbers to draw strong conclusions.

To overcome these limitations, harmonized but independent cohorts have been established in different geographic areas of the United States – the PARIS (Protection Associated with Rapid Immunity to SARS-CoV-2) and SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence and Respiratory Tract Assessment) cohorts.

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These cohorts offer an agile and rapid approach to setting up a network suitable for collecting biological samples and other data.

“We started the PARIS cohort at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai because we wanted to know 3 things: how long do antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 last during infection, whether antibody responses protect against reinfection and how much antibody an individual needs to protect,” said study lead author Florian Krammer, Ph.D., professor of microbiology and pathology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. .

“It’s very important, when you have an emerging virus, to study the immune responses to the infection itself over time, to look at the protective effects of infection-induced immune responses, and also to study what happens when people get vaccinated,” the main study added. author Viviana Simon, MD, Ph.D., professor of microbiology, infectious diseases, and pathology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

In the new study, to understand reinfection rates and correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2, researchers established 8 different longitudinal cohorts in 2020 under the umbrella of the PARIS/SPARTA studies. The cohorts included HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants at high risk of infection.

The initial PARIS study focused on healthcare workers in New York City, one of the early epicenters of the pandemic in the United States, but the other cohorts targeted not only healthcare workers but other populations. , including communities of color, first responders and students.

With rapid deployments of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine beginning in mid-December 2020 in the United States, many cohorts are also now tracking immune responses to vaccination in seronegative and seropositive individuals at the time of vaccination. There were 8741 participants in the 8 cohorts. In the 8 cohorts, researchers followed individuals with and without COVID-19 by collecting data as well as biological samples to measure immune responses (eg, antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein) at least every 2 months.

“We saw that the antibody response in previously infected individuals was relatively stable and they were protected against reinfection unless the new infection was the Omicron variant,” Dr. Krammer said. The team studied the behavior of immune responses in previously infected individuals compared to those who had not yet been infected. The researchers showed that previously infected individuals developed very rapid immune responses even after a single dose of the vaccine. “Vaccination boosts your protection and provides better immunity,” Dr. Krammer said. (ANI)

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Sara H. Byrd